resources for educators

The Portal to Texas History

Primary Source Sets

Native American Cultures: Southeastern, Gulf, and Plains

Caddos, Karankawas, and Wichitas

The resources in this primary source set are intended for classroom use. Click on a thumbnail image to view the original resource and download link for viewing and saving. Click on the caption next to the image to view the bibliographic record, share on a network, or print. PDF documents are available for download and use in your classroom discussions.


Caddo Indian documents, 1841-1856

These five documents address Jose Maria, Chief of the Anadacos, and Ti-nah, Chief of the Caddo. PDF w/ transcription

Corn Crop

The Caddo were farmers who lived in East Texas. This is a contemporary image of a corn crop in a field. PDF

Engraved Bottle

A replica Caddo bottle with red-slip is burnished with four repeated panels of engraved a circular pattern. The original is from Bison Site in Sabine County, Texas. PDF

Grass Hut 1

Photograph of grass huts of the Wichita Indians. Similar grass huts were used by the Caddo. PDF

Grass Hut 2

Photograph of grass huts of the Wichita Indians from the Tarrant County College NE, Heritage Room. Similar grass huts were used by the Caddo. PDF

Handful of Corn

Photograph of a handful of corn. PDF

McKamy Springs, Richardson, Texas

The photograph features a natural spring, with a stone and concrete structure built around and over it. A plaque is set into a stone/cement low monument inside the canal. It reads: "The Yoiuane tribe of the Caddo group of Indians lived here as early as 1690 to 1840. They hunted buffalo and deer on the prairie. They used McKamy Spring as a watering place. It was from these friendly Tejas Indians that Texas got her name." PDF

Placido, Tonkawas Chief

The Tonkawas lived just to the east of, and along, the Edwards escarpment. They were friendly with the Karankawa and shared the lands between the Karankawa homelands and their homelands.The Caddo, Jumano and Coahuiltecan tribes would camp with the Tonkawa for several months in the summer. Tonkawa means, "the people of the Wolf." The Tonkawa claimed they were all descended from a mythical wolf. For this reason the Tonkawa would never kill a wolf and hunted for food instead of farming. The Tonkawa lived in both huts, wickiups and tee-pees. The most notable time they allied with the Texans was at the battle of Plum Creek against the Comanche Indians. The drawing features Placido, Chief of the Tonkawas. PDF

Women Making Pottery, 1992

Caddoan women try their hand at making pottery. PDF