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When Texas emerged as an independent republic (1836-1845), the new nation faced tremendous challenges: the nation was deeply in debt and Mexico, refusing to recognize Texas independence, threated to reconquer the region. The United States had also refused Texas’s request to be annexed to the United States. Texans thus began forging their own nation, built on the Texas-grown cotton that made up more than 90 percent of the Republic’s exports.
As the first president of the Republic, Sam Houston worked to put the Lone Star Republic on stable ground. Houston sought peace treaties with various Indian tribes in Texas, attempted to have Texas recognized by the nations of Europe, and tried to solve the Republic’s financial problems. But Houston discovered that no European nations would recognize Texas, largely because slavery remained legal in the Republic. As a result, the Texas nation could not secure loans and had trouble selling its cotton abroad, driving the Republic deeper into debt.
The second president, Mirabeau Lamar, attempted to fix these problems by taking Texas in a radically new direction. Instead of making peace with Texas Indians, Lamar declared war on them, driving most groups out of East Texas. Lamar also failed to get most European nations to recognize Texas and his wars against Texas Indians had driven up the Republic’s debt dramatically. When the price of cotton collapsed in Texas during the late 1830s (further compounding the nation’s economic woes), Lamar launched a mission to nearby Santa Fe, New Mexico, that ended in disaster, embarrassing the Republic.
By the time Houston became president again during the early 1840s, challenges facing the Republic had made it difficult for Texas to defend itself. Mexico, indeed, invaded and took over San Antonio twice in 1842. As such, Houston pushed hard to have Texas annexed to the United States during the first half of the 1840s, an effort which finally succeeded under president Anson Jones in 1845.
We've assembled the following list of maps that are applicable to the Republic of Texas.
The United States, Texas & the British Provinces of the Canadas, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, N. Brunswick & Prince Edward Island
"Map shows major cities, political divisions and geography of early nineteenth century North America. Relief shown by hachures."
"Map shows cities and provinces of Mexico and a separate Texas with boundaries extended to the 'Rio Bravo del Norte.'"
"Map shows the geography and settlements of 1840 Mexico and the Republic of Texas along with adjoining areas of the United States."
"Map shows mid-nineteenth century cities, states, international boundaries, areas of Native American habitation, Oregon Territory, and Missouri Territory in the United States."
"Atlas map of the state of Texas, showing towns, roads, water bodies, and other geological features."
"Map of Texas showing major cities, geographic features (with relief shown by hachures), and rivers as well as Cross Timbers, Old Spanish Road, and U.S. Traders Road."
Karte von Texas entworfen nach den Vermessungen welche in den Acten der General-Land-Office der Republic Liegen bis zum Jahr 1839...
"Map that accompanies the book Entstehungsgeschichte und Gegenwärtige Zustand."
"Boundaries of Texas. Political, Conventional, and Natural. Relief shown pictorially."
"Map of Texas and northern Mexico, as well as the surrounding area."
"Map shows mid-nineteenth century Mexican states or provinces, cities, roads, and areas of Native American occupancy. Texas is shown as a separate entity, encompassing Santa Fe."
"Map shows Texas separate from Mexico, Alaska as "Russian America," provinces and states, major cities and towns."
A map of the Indian territory, northern Texas and New Mexico [map] showing the great western prairies
"Map shows locations and hunting grounds of Native American tribes, and routes of expeditions."
"Map shows northern Mexico, southwestern U.S., and Texas as defined by Act of the Texian Congress, December 19, 1836; includes Native American tribes, battle sites, major cities and towns, water resources, roads, and trails."
"Map shows major roads, early county lines, military posts, Spanish missions, geographic features, cities, towns, and ferries on the Sabine River in the eastern and southern portions of mid-nineteenth century Texas."
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The founding of the Republic of Texas, covering: (1) What does the Republic mean to Texans?, (2) What Will Texas Become?, (3) Forming a Republic.
The following list of resources provide additional information to help you dive deeper into the context of the unit. Books are linked to OCLC WorldCat, allowing you find a copy in your nearest local library or to make a request for it using interlibrary loan.