7.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in Texas history. The student is expected to:
7.1(A) identify the major eras in Texas history, describe their defining characteristics, and explain the purpose of dividing the past into eras, including Natural Texas and its People; Age of Contact; Spanish Colonial; Mexican National; Revolution and Republic; Early Statehood; Texas in the Civil War and Reconstruction; Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads; Age of Oil; Texas in the Great Depression and World War II; Civil Rights; and Contemporary Texas; and
7.1(B) explain the significance of the following dates: 1519, mapping of the Texas coast and first mainland Spanish settlement; 1718, founding of San Antonio; 1821, independence from Spain; 1836, Texas independence; 1845, annexation; 1861, Civil War begins; 1876, adoption of current state constitution; and 1901, discovery of oil at Spindletop.
7.2 History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues through the Mexican National Era shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
7.2(A) compare the cultures of American Indians in Texas prior to European colonization such as Gulf, Plains, Puebloan, and Southeastern;
7.2(B) identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European exploration of Texas such as Alonso Álvarez de Pineda, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, the search for gold, and the conflicting territorial claims between France and Spain;
7.2(C) identify important individuals, events, and issues related to European colonization of Texas, including the establishment of Catholic missions, towns, and ranches, and the contributions of individuals such as Fray Damián Massanet, Antonio Margil de Jesús, and Francisco Hidalgo;
7.2(D) identify the individuals, issues, and events related to Mexico becoming an independent nation and its impact on Texas, including Father Miguel Hidalgo, Texas involvement in the fight for independence, José Gutiérrez de Lara, the Battle of Medina, the Mexican federal Constitution of 1824, the merger of Texas and Coahuila as a state, the State Colonization Law of 1825, and slavery;
7.2(E) identify the contributions of significant individuals, including Moses Austin, Stephen F. Austin, Erasmo Seguín, Martín De León, and Green DeWitt, during the Mexican settlement of Texas; and
7.2(F) contrast Spanish, Mexican, and Anglo purposes for and methods of settlement in Texas.
7.3 History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues related to the Texas Revolution shaped the history of Texas. The student is expected to:
7.3(A) describe the chain of events that led to the Texas Revolution, including the Fredonian Rebellion, the Mier y Terán Report, the Law of April 6, 1830, the Turtle Bayou Resolutions, and the arrest of Stephen F. Austin;
7.3(B) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the Texas Revolution, including George Childress, Lorenzo de Zavala, James Fannin, Sam Houston, Antonio López de Santa Anna, Juan N. Seguín, and William B. Travis; and
7.3(C) explain the issues surrounding significant events of the Texas Revolution, including the Battle of Gonzales; the siege of the Alamo, William B. Travis's letter "To the People of Texas and All Americans in the World," and the heroism of the diverse defenders who gave their lives there; the Constitutional Convention of 1836; Fannin's surrender at Goliad; and the Battle of San Jacinto.
7.4 History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of the Republic of Texas and early Texas statehood. The student is expected to:
7.4(A) identify individuals, events, and issues during the administrations of Republic of Texas Presidents Houston, Lamar, and Jones such as the Texas Navy, the Texas Rangers, Jack Coffee Hays, Chief Bowles, William Goyens, Mary Maverick, José Antonio Navarro, the Córdova Rebellion, the Council House Fight, the Santa Fe Expedition, slavery, and the roles of racial and ethnic groups;
7.4(B) analyze the causes of and events leading to Texas annexation such as security and public debt; and
7.4(C) identify individuals, events, and issues during early Texas statehood, including the U.S.-Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, slavery, and the Compromise of 1850.
7.5 History. The student understands how events and issues shaped the history of Texas during the Civil War and Reconstruction. The student is expected to:
7.5(A) explain the central role the expansion of slavery played in the involvement of Texas in the Civil War;
7.5(B) identify significant events concerning Texas and the Civil War such as the Battle of Galveston, the Battle of Sabine Pass, and the Battle of Palmito Ranch; and
7.5(C) explain the political, economic, and social effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction in Texas.
7.6 History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas from Reconstruction through the beginning of the 20th century. The student is expected to:
7.6(A) identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier, the effects of westward expansion on American Indians, the buffalo soldiers, and Quanah Parker;
7.6(B) identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings and the cowboy way of life;
7.6(C) identify significant individuals, events, and issues, including the effects of the growth of railroads and the contributions of James Hogg; and
7.6(D) explain the political, economic, and social impact of the agricultural industry and the development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier.
7.7 History. The student understands how individuals, events, and issues shaped the history of Texas during the late 19th, 20th, and early 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
7.7(A) explain how the oil industry led to the industrialization of Texas;
7.7(B) define and trace the impact of "boom-and-bust" cycles of leading Texas industries throughout the 20th and early 21st centuries such as farming, oil and gas production, cotton, ranching, real estate, banking, and computer technology;
7.7(C) describe and compare the impact of reform movements in Texas in the 19th and 20th centuries such as progressivism, populism, women's suffrage, agrarianism, labor reform, and the conservative movement of the late 20th century;
7.7(D) describe and compare the civil rights and equal rights movements of various groups in Texas in the 20th century and identify key leaders in these movements such as James L. Farmer Jr., Hector P. Garcia, Oveta Culp Hobby, Lyndon B. Johnson, the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Jane McCallum, and Lulu Belle Madison White; and
7.7(E) analyze the political, economic, and social impact of World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and significant issues in the latter half of the 20th and early 21st centuries such as political and economic controversies, immigration, and migration on the history of Texas.
7.8 Geography. The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of Texas. The student is expected to:
7.8(A) locate and compare the Mountains and Basins, Great Plains, North Central Plains, and Coastal Plains regions;
7.8(B) locate and compare places of importance in Texas in terms of physical and human characteristics such as major cities, waterways, natural and historic landmarks, political and cultural regions, and local points of interest; and
7.8(C) analyze the effects of physical and human factors such as climate, weather, landforms, irrigation, transportation, and communication on major events in Texas.
7.9 Geography. The student understands the effects of the interaction between humans and the environment in Texas. The student is expected to:
7.9(A) identify ways in which Texans have adapted to and modified the environment and explain the positive and negative consequences of the modifications; and
7.9(B) explain ways in which geographic factors such as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Dust Bowl, limited water resources, and alternative energy sources have affected the political, economic, and social development of Texas.
7.10 Geography. The student understands the characteristics, distribution, and migration of population in Texas in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. The student is expected to:
7.10(A) identify why immigrant groups came to Texas and where they settled;
7.10(B) describe how immigration and migration to Texas have influenced Texas;
7.10(C) describe the structure of the population of Texas using demographic concepts such as growth rate and age distribution; and
7.10(D) analyze the effects of the changing population distribution and growth in Texas and the additional need for education, health care, and transportation.
7.11 Economics. The student understands the factors that caused Texas to change from an agrarian to an urban society. The student is expected to:
7.11(A) explain economic factors and the development of major industries that led to the urbanization of Texas such as transportation, oil and gas, and manufacturing; and
7.11(B) explain the changes in the types of jobs and occupations that have resulted from the urbanization of Texas.
7.12 Economics. The student understands the interdependence of the Texas economy with the United States and the world. The student is expected to:
7.12(A) explain the impact of national and international markets on the production of goods and services in Texas, including agriculture and oil and gas;
7.12(B) explain the impact of economic concepts within the free enterprise system such as supply and demand, profit, and world competition on the economy of Texas; and
7.13 Government. The student understands the basic principles reflected in the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
7.13(A) identify how the Texas Constitution reflects the principles of limited government, republicanism, checks and balances, federalism, separation of powers, popular sovereignty, and individual rights; and
7.13(B) compare the principles and concepts of the Texas Constitution to the U.S. Constitution, including the Texas and U.S. Bill of Rights.
7.14 Government. The student understands the structure and functions of government created by the Texas Constitution. The student is expected to:
7.14(A) describe the structure and functions of government at municipal, county, and state levels; and
7.14(B) identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments such as property taxes, sales taxes, bonds, and fees.
7.15 Citizenship. The student understands the rights and responsibilities of Texas citizens in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
7.15(A) explain rights of Texas citizens; and
7.15(B) explain civic responsibilities of Texas citizens and the importance of civic participation.
7.16 Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
7.16(A) identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important Texas issues, past and present; and
7.16(B) describe the importance of free speech and press in a democratic society.
7.17 Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a democratic society. The student is expected to:
7.17(A) identify the leadership qualities of elected and appointed leaders of Texas, past and present, including Texans who have been president of the United States; and
7.17(B) identify the contributions of Texas leaders such as Lawrence Sullivan "Sul" Ross, John Nance Garner ("Cactus Jack"), James A. Baker III, Henry B. González, Kay Bailey Hutchison, Barbara Jordan, Raymond L. Telles, Sam Rayburn, and Raul A. Gonzalez Jr.
7.18 Culture. The student understands the concept of diversity within unity in Texas. The student is expected to:
7.18(A) explain how the diversity of Texas is reflected in a variety of cultural activities and celebrations;
7.18(B) describe how people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups attempt to maintain their cultural heritage while adapting to the larger Texas culture;
7.18(C) identify examples of Spanish influence and the influence of other cultures on Texas such as place names, vocabulary, religion, architecture, food, and the arts; and
7.18(D) identify contributions to the arts by Texans such as Roy Bedichek, Diane Gonzales Bertrand, J. Frank Dobie, Scott Joplin, Elisabet Ney, Amado Peña Jr., Walter Prescott Webb, and Horton Foote.
7.19 Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:
7.19(A) compare types and uses of technology, past and present;
7.19(B) identify Texas leaders in science and technology such as Walter Cunningham, Michael DeBakey, Denton Cooley, Benjy Brooks, Michael Dell, and Howard Hughes Sr.;
7.19(C) analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, energy, medical, computer, and aerospace industries;
7.19(D) evaluate the effects of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the use of resources such as fossil fuels, water, and land; and
7.19(E) analyze how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world.
7.20 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including technology. The student is expected to:
7.20(A) differentiate between, locate, and use valid primary and secondary sources such as media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about Texas;
7.20(B) analyze information by applying absolute and relative chronology through sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions;
7.20(C) organize and interpret information from outlines, reports, databases, and visuals, including graphs, charts, timelines, and maps;
7.20(D) identify bias and points of view from the historical context surrounding an event that influenced the participants;
7.20(E) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event; and
7.20(F) evaluate the validity of a source based on corroboration with other sources and information about the author.
7.21 Social studies skills. The student uses geographic tools to collect, analyze, and interpret data. The student is expected to:
7.21(A) create and interpret thematic maps, graphs, and charts representing various aspects of Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries; and
7.21(B) analyze and interpret geographic distributions and patterns in Texas during the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries.
7.22 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to:
7.22(A) use social studies terminology correctly;
7.22(B) use effective written communication skills, including proper citations and avoiding plagiarism; and
7.22(C) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information.
7.23 Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decision-making skills, working independently and with others. The student is expected to use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution.