Students will know how to use social studies terminology correctly. Vocabulary includes terms, key people, and events of the Mexican National era.
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When Mexico became independent of Spain in 1821, the new nation faced daunting challenges: the country was deeply in debt, Spain had promised to reconquer the territory, and much of Mexico had been devastated by the War for Independence. One of the most alarming problems that Mexico inherited from Spain was their remarkably weak presence in Texas, since so few Spaniards – now Mexicans – lived in the region.
As such, Mexico endorsed a plan by Tejanos (Mexicans native to Texas) to invite Anglo-Americans to settle in Texas. The hope was that these American farmers would become Anglo-Mexicans, whose new settlements would bring more population, stability, and economic development to the region. These Americans, in turn, were interested in Texas because Mexico’s government offered them vast swaths of land, far more than they could ever hope to buy in the United States. Thousands of Americans, as a result, began moving during the 1820s into eastern Texas, where they established farms and plantations that mostly grew cotton.
For a variety of reasons, disputes emerged during the late 1820s and early 1830s that put Texans (Anglos and Tejanos) in conflict with various levels of Mexico’s government. Both Anglos and Tejanos, for example, supported the importation of enslaved African Americans to serve as the labor system driving Anglo cotton farms in Texas, which put them at odds with leaders from other parts of Mexico who wanted to outlaw slavery altogether. Both Anglos and Tejanos also resented that Texas had been attached to the nearby state of Coahuila and petitioned unsuccessfully to be granted permission to be their own state. And as the Anglo population grew dramatically during the late 1820s and early 1830s, Mexico City began trying to assert more control over Texas, leading to disputes (and some armed fights) in the region.
Through it all, Tejanos and Anglos in Texas both tended to be strong supporters of “federalism” under Mexico’s Constitution of 1824, which promised that states in Mexico could pass their own laws based on local needs. When a group of leaders in Mexico City, with Santa Anna at the helm, overthrew the Constitution of 1824, alarmed Tejanos and Anglos openly began resisting the new “centralist” government of Mexico.
We've assembled the following list of lessons that are applicable to this unit. Most lessons contain downloadable and printable documents, activities, and other resources to aid in classroom instruction.
The Mexican National Unit Vocabulary
We've assembled the following list of maps that are applicable to the Mexican National.
Carte des États Unis du Méxique
Map shows early nineteenth century geography, major roads, mines, areas of Native American habitation, extent of rivers, cities, and military posts in Mexico.
Carte des Mexique
Map shows major Mexican cities, provinces, physical features, and areas of Native American habitation.
Republic of Mexico
Map shows early nineteenth century Mexican cities, states, and territories [inclusive of Texas], Santa Fe Trail, Missouri Territory, and Arkansas Territory.
Mexico and internal provinces: prepared from Humboldt's map & other documents
Map shows states and provinces of the Republic of Mexico inclusive of the American Southwest and areas of Native American habitation.
Mexico, and Guatimala : Corrected from original information communicated by Simon A.G. Bourne, Esq.
"Map shows provinces, cities, roads, mines, and geographic features in Mexico; cities in Guatemala; British settlement of Balize."
Mapa de los estados unidos de Méjico : segun lo organizado y definido por las varias actas del Congreso de dicha república y construido por las mejores autoridades
"Map shows major roads, major cities and towns, state boundaries, and of particular note, Coahuila [y] Tejas and Nuevo Mexico/Santa Fe; boundary with the United States to Oregon and Arkansas Territories."
Map of the United States : compiled from the most authentic sources
"Map shows major cities, areas of Native American habitation by tribe [some with population statictics], state and territorial boundaries, and the "Internal Provices of Mexico"; map extends beyond neatline to include Cuba and other islands of the West Indies; Arkansas Territory, Missouri Territory, North West Territory, Michigan Territory, and Oregon [Territory]."
"Map shows Russian Possessions" [Alaska], "British America" [Canada], "Central America or Guatemala," Greenland, noted 1825 boundary line between Russian Possessions and British America; Mexico's northern boundary encompassing Californias and Texas; areas of Native American habitation, major cities, rivers, and mountains."
A map of Louisiana and Mexico : Carte de la Louisiane et du Mexique
"Map shows known geography and places names in early nineteenth century Louisiana and Mexico territories."
"Map shows 1824 Mexican state division lines. Map indicates state names, geography, and some cities."
"Map shows early nineteenth century known cities, towns, and geographical features in Mexico."
"Map shows major early nineteenth century Mexican cities and towns, mines, roads, presidios, military posts, and areas of Native American habitation."
Mexico, Guatemala, and the West Indies
"Map shows early nineteenth century boundaries of Mexico extending north along the Pacific coast."
"Map shows major cities and towns, names of mountain peaks and volcanoes, areas of Native American habitation, and internal political boundaries; Coahuila and Texas distinct Mexican states; British Belize. Inset: 'Mexico, shewing [sic.] its connection with the ports of Acapulco, Vera Cruz, & Tampico; on double the scale of the map.'"
The United States of Mexico
"Map shows borders, cities, and geography of early nineteenth century Mexican states. Inset: 'Guatemala or the United Provinces of Central America.'"
Mexico & Guatemala / by H.S. Tanner ; engraved by J. Knight
"'Tanner's universal atlas.' Relief shown by hachures. Prime meridian: Washington. Insets: Valley of Mexico -- Guatemala"
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Establishing Mexican Texas
Mexican independence from Spain, covering: (1) The U.S. Land Crisis, (2) Moses Austin’s Zany Scheme, (3) Do We Let in the Americans?, (4) Founding the Austin Colony.
Mexican governance of Texas, covering: (1) Establishing the Austin Colony (2) Mexico City, Centralism Vs. Federalism, (3) The Problem of Slavery, (4) The Constitution of 1824, (5) A Rebellion in East Texas.
The following list of resources provide additional information to help you dive deeper into the context of the unit. Books are linked to OCLC WorldCat, allowing you find a copy in your nearest local library or to make a request for it using interlibrary loan.
website Results for the Mexican National Period Period in The Portal to Texas History